Coffee World

Coffee plants primarily grow in relatively cool climates in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn. The optimum temperature is between 59-75F year round. They are primarily cultivated in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India and Africa. There is a direct relationship between extremes of day and nighttime terperatures and coffee quality. Experimental evidence has indicated that a large gap between day and nighttime temperatures is beneficial to the flavor of fruits. Since a coffee cherry is fruit and the seed is in contact with the fruit, these benefits will be passed onto the seeds and therefore into the cups.

Two species are cultivated, Arabica and Robusta. Robusta plants ususally grown between 15 and 20 feet compared to the 8 to 15 feet height of Arabica ones. Robusta has a higher yield and is less sensitive to insects. Robusta is much more tolerant to warm conditions than Arabica. When the coffee tree gets older, it branches less and bears more leaves and fruit. From the price perspective, green Robusta beans is about half the price of green Arabica beans. Robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor. Robusta strains also contain about 40-50% more caffeine than Arabica. Robusta beans consist of 1.7-4% caffeine and Arabica beans contain 0.8-1.4% caffeine. Most instant coffee is made from Robusta. About 75% of the world's coffee production is Arabica, around 25% being Robusta. Brazil is the most significant Arabica producer and Vietnam produces the most Robusta.

The native origin of coffee has been discovered in Ethiopia in 8th Century. "Coffee" first entered English language in 1582 via the Dutch"Koffie", borrowed from the Turkish "Kahve", in turn taken from the Arabic "qahwah". The original meaning of "qahwah" referred to a type of wine. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is in the middle of 15th century, in Yemen. Coffee beans were exported to Yemen from Ethiopia. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate coffee beans. When coffee reached the Arabian penisula, it began a journey bringing these beans across the world. By the 16th century, coffee was known in the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, Egypt, Horn of Africa, and Northern Africa. European travelers to the Near East brought back stories of an unusal dark beverage. Coffee was becoming popular across the continent by the 17th century. Coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Netherland. It began to replace the common breakfast drink beverages of the time - beer and wine.

Economics of Coffee

Coffee is the second-most traded commodity in the whole world, second only to crude oil. Over 2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed in the world every day. Tens of millions of small producers in developing countries make their living growing coffee. The coffee industry currently has a commodity chain that involves producers, middlemen exporters, importers, roasters, and retailers before reaching the consumers. Over 90% of coffee production takes place in developing countries - mostly South America, while consumption happens mainly in the industrialized economies.

National coffee days

Date Country
April 14 Portugal
May 6 Denmark
May 24 Brazil
June 27 Colombia
August 22 Peru
September, 1st Saturday Germany
September 12 Costa Rica
September 19 Ireland
September 20 Mongolia
September 28 Switzerland
September 29 Mexico
September 29 Australia
September 29 Austria
September 29 Belgium
September 29 Canada
September 29 England
September 29 Ethiopia
September 29 Hungary
September 29 Iceland
September 29 India
September 29 Indonesia
September 29 Malaysia
September 29 New Zealand
September 29 Norway
September 29 Scotland
September 29 Romania
September 29 Slovakia
September 29 South Africa
September 29 Sweden
September 29 Taiwan
September 29 United States
October 1 Japan
October 1 Sri Lanka

Top 10 Countries of coffee comsumption per capita

Ranking Country
1 Finland
2 Norway
3 Iceland
4 Denmark
5 Netherlands
6 Sweden
7 Switzerland
8 Belgium Luxembourg
9 Canada
10 Bosinia and Herzegovina

Top 10 Most Traded Commodities in the world

Ranking Commodity
1 Crude Oil
2 Coffee
3 Cotton
4 Wheat
5 Corn
6 Sugar
7 Silver
8 Copper
9 Gold
10 Natural Gas

Top 5 coffee exporters by country in 2016

Ranking Country Pounds
1 Brazil 5,719,011,000
2 Vietnam 3,637,627,000
3 Colombia 1,785,744,000
4 Indonesia 1,455,050,000
5 Ethiopia 846,575,000

Top 5 coffee exporters by country in 2015

Ranking Country Pounds
1 Brazil 5,985,613,000
2 Vietnam 3,630,284,000
3 Colombia 1,531,200,000
4 Indonesia 904,200,000
5 Ethiopia 860,000,000

Sour or Bitter?

FLAVOR GRIND BREW TIME WATER TEMPERATURE
Sour Finer Increase Low
Bitter Coarser Decrease High

Latte Macaron

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馬卡龍 拿鐵

Macarrão café com leite

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ماکارون اسپرسو

лате френски макарон