There are three regions in Ethiopia to cultivate coffees: Harrar, Sidamo, and Yirgacheffe. Harrar coffees are dry proccessed and from old varietal typica coffee trees. These are noted for their extremely "wild" fruit finish. Sidamo and Yirgacheffe coffees are most wet proccessed and have a floral/berry finish.
The acidic soil in highlands of central Kenya, just the right amount of sunlight and rainfall provide excellent conditions for growing coffee plants. Coffee was first planted in Kenya at Bura in Taita Hills in 1893 and thereafter, grown at Kibwezi, under irrigation in 1900, and at Kikuyu near Nairobi in 1904. Kenya coffee is with irresistible acidity and sun-dried. Coffee is said to have been first brought to Kenya in 1893 by John Paterson, a Scottish Missionary to the Taitan Hills in the Southern part of the country. We always find this particularly interesting because of this country’s proximity to the birthplace of Arabica coffee, neighboring Ethiopia. Throughout the early 20th century, coffee spread North, but was primarily confined to other European settlement areas. After the Devonshire White Paper of 1923 (which was a document issued by the Duke of Devonshire to address the land grab and racial tension between Africans and European settlers), coffee began to spread outside of the white establishments into the country.
The first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in the state of Pará in 1727. Coffee spread from Pará and reached Rio de Janeiro in 1770, but was only produced for domestic consumption until the early 19th century when American and European demand increased, creating the first of two coffee booms. The cycle ran from the 1830s to 1850s and the second boom ran from the 1880s to the 1930s. In the 1920s, Brazil was a nearly monopolist of the international coffee market and supplied 80% of the world's coffee. Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years, currently producing about a third of all coffee. United States were the largest buyer of the Brazilian coffee, followed by the European countries. Plantations are mainly located in the southeastern states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná where the environment and climate provide ideal growing conditions.
Coffee was introduced into Java from India in 1699. Coffee plants were taken from Java to Amsterdam in 1706 and eight years later the Paris Botanical Gardens secured seedlings from Amsterdam. In 1723, the progeny of those plants in the Paris Botanical Gardens, were taken to Martinique by French Naval officer Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu. in 1728, The Governor Sir Nicholas Lawes introduced coffee into Jamaica from Hispaniola, now Haiti, in the parish of St. Andrew. Natural conditions proves to be most favourable and the product was found to be of very high quaility. The best lots of Blue Mountain coffee are noted for their balanced mild flavour and lack of bitterness. Over 80% of Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is exported to Japan.
Jesuit priests brought coffee seeds from Venezuela to Colombia in 1723. It is said that the first coffee trees were grown in the Jesuit Seminary of Popayán, which is in the department of Cauca, and later in 1741 in the provinces of Santa Marta and Riohacha. Colombia coffee emits a sweet aroma.
Coffee was first introduced into Costa Rica in 1779 from Cuba by the Spanish colonial government with its beginnings in Meseta Central.
Coffee was first introduced into Veracruz, a state in Mexico at the end of the 18th century. Spanish brought coffee plants from Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Its commercial cultivation began decades later when German and Italian immigrants relocated from Guatemala and other Central American nations. In the 1790s, when the first coffee plantations began to appear in the southeast state of Vera Cruz, Spanish colonialism was already deeply entrenched in the region.
Coffee was introduced in Nicaragua in the mid-nineteenth century. By the early 1850s, passengers crossing Nicaragua en route to California were served large quantities of Nicaraguan coffee. The Central American coffee boom was in full swing in Nicaragua by the 1870s, and large areas in western Nicaragua were cleared and planted with coffee trees.
Coffee production came to Peru in the 1700s. The first production was mostly in the nor-oriental forest of the Peru the regions of Moyobamba and Jaén. Up until around 1850, coffee was cultivated on farms along with other agricultural products.
Coffee production in Guatemala started in the 1850s (coffee originally comes from Ethiopia), and it became Guatemala's main export crop by the end of the 19th century (80% of exports).
The history of coffee throughout Southeast Asia dates back to Dutch and French colonialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1857, the French colonial government introduced coffee to Vietnam and established a thriving coffee industry in several locations of the Annam Region, a mountainous plateau that extends through several countries. In terms of coffee, Laos and Cambodia were probably earlier players than Vietnam. But eventually Vietnam became the leading producer of coffee in Southeast Asia. Vietnam is currently the second largest export country of the hardier Robusta Vietnamese coffee beans.
in 1696 a Dutch governor in India sent Yemeni coffee seedlings to the Dutch governor in Batavia, known today as Jakarta; Indonesia’s capital situated in Java. They were interested in growing the plants and sought to break the worldwide Arab monopoly on the coffee trade. The first shipment of seedlings were planted, and over several months were destroyed by heavy rain. Over time, however, subsequent crops were successful, and the first coffee exports from Java to Europe were sent in 1711. This marked the birth of the coffee trade in Java, initially run by the Dutch Government via the Dutch East Indies Trading Company, or the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC). There are three main coffee growing areas in Indonesia: Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi.
Java is renowned for its gourmet Arabica coffee. Arabica coffee is most suited to altitudes over 1500m. It grows well in temperatures of 16-20 degrees Celsius. Javanese coffee beans can be stored in warehouses for two to three years. This increases the strong full bodied taste that Arabica is known for.
Coffee in Sulawesi is grown using traditional practices of coffee cultivation, mostly on privately owned smallholder plantations. Picking and sorting of the coffee cherries is done by hand making the coffee of very high quality as only the best cherries are picked. The low annual yield of Toraja’s Arabica makes this coffee highly sought after by coffee connoisseurs worldwide. Toraja Sulawesi coffee is particularly popular in Japan. There is a very limited supply of Toraja coffee in the world due to the cultivation practices and conditions. The highest grades of Toraja coffee are normally reserved for export.
Sumatra produces two of the world’s most famous and high quality coffees - Mandheling and Ankola (seldom-used market name for Arabica coffee). Sumatra Mandheling coffee is characterized by a low-key acidity and a heavy, almost syrupy, body with a concentrated and complex flavor.
Coffees from Papua New Guinea are sweet and floral. The original seedlings were from Jamaican Blue Mountain planted in 1927. The best Papua New Guinea coffees display a pungent, mango and papaya fruitiness in the aroma with a clean full-bodied flavor.
The British Tait Marketing & Distribution Co brought hundreds of Arabica Coffee trees to Taiwan from Manila Philippine in 1884. They were planted in Taipei mountain area. In 1885, Coffee seeds were carried to Taipei however the plants did not grow up well and were burn out by a fire. During the period under Japanese rule, Java and Manila coffee trees were planted and found out Arabica coffee species quality is best in 1919.
The journey of Indian coffee originates from a fairy tale in an interesting and unique journey made by a Sufi saint, Baba Budan, from India over 400 years ago, while on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He decided to risk everything and smuggled seven coffee beans by tying it around his waist from Yemen to Mysore, India. It was considered an illegal act to take out green coffee seed out of Arabia. They were planted on the Chandragiri Hills in Chikkamagaluru district. Systematic cultivation soon followed Baba Budan’s first planting of the seeds, in 1670, mostly by private owners and the first plantation was established in 1840 around Baba Budan Giri and its surrounding hills in Karnataka. Subsequently, coffee plantations continued to thrive in India over the period of British Raj and beyond. The Dutch began to grow coffee in the Malabar region, but a major transition happened when the British led a relentless drive to set up Arabica coffee plantations across the hilly regions in South India, where they found the climatic conditions to be apt for the crop.
Coffee was brought to Australia on the First Fleet in 1788, the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Until the 1950s, that good quality espresso coffee was introduced to Australians. This largely came about with the influence of European migrants. Those Australians whose families came from places such as Italy, Greece, France, Turkey, Austria and Hungary had always enjoyed a decent cup of coffee at home but it wasn’t always easy to find their favoured espresso or latte in a neighbourhood café.
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted.
Break down the roasted coffee bean to expose the interior of the bean allow the right amount of oils and flavors to be extracted. Ground coffee has much more surface area than whole bean coffee, allowing water to make contact with more coffee when brewing.
The water is in contact with the coffee grounds is another important flavor factor. The amounts of coffee and water at the right temperature with appropriate coffee grind size and brewing time are major concerns to make a good coffee taste.
Coffee is probably best served in ceramic mugs or cups that have been warmed first with a little hot water. In England, coffee is often served in a tea cup with saucer. Milk and sugar are popular coffee flavorings.
Espresso is the name of a highly concentrated, bittersweet coffee originating in Italy in the early 20th century. It is coffee brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. After the pressurized brewing process, the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are very concentrated. Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most coffee beverages, but because the usual serving size is much smaller, the total caffeine content is less than a mug of standard brewed coffee, contrary to a common belief.
Cappuccino is made from freshly ground and brewed espresso combined with steamed milk. It consists of one-third espresso, one-third heated milk and one-third milk foam and is generally served in a 6 to 8-ounce cup. Cream may be used instead of milk and is often topped with cinnamon. It is typically smaller in volume than a caffè latte, with a thicker layer of micro foam. The Viennese bestowed the name "Kapuziner" possibly in the 18th century on a version that included whipped cream and spices of unknown origin. The Italian cappuccino was unknown until the 1930s, and seems to be born out of Viennese-style cafés in Trieste and other cities in the former Austria in the first decades of the 20th century.
One shot of espresso is mixed with 6 to 8 ounces of steamed milk, then topped with foam - if you prefer. Coffee and milk have been part of European cuisine since the 17th century. In Italy, caffè latte is almost always prepared at home, for breakfast only. The coffee is brewed with a stove top Moka pot and poured into a cup containing heated milk. In the US, a latte is often heavily sweetened.
A drink that is a mixture of coffee and chocolate typically in the form of sweet cocoa powder. Mocha, in its most basic formulation, can also be referred to as hot chocolate with a shot of espresso added.
Macarrão café com leite